The Bible

Why are some Catholic teachings not found in the Bible and why did Catholics put "extra" books in their bible?

First of all, some definitions.
Sacred Scripture is the Word of God as it is put down in writing by human authors through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit."
Sacred Tradition: The transmission of the entirety of the Word of God (Orally or written) which has been entrusted to the apostles by Christ the Lord and the Holy Spirit. This Tradition continues through time as it is passed on to the successors of the apostles (Bishops) so that, enlightened by the Spirit of truth, they may faithfully preserve, expound, and spread it abroad by their preaching.
Magisterium: The living, teaching office of the Church, whose task it is to give authentic interpretation of the word of God, whether in its written form (Sacred Scripture), or in the form of Tradition. The Magisterium ensures the Church's fidelity to the teaching of the Apostles in matters of faith and morals.

The Catechism explains the relationship among Scripture, Tradition, and the Magisterium:

95 "It is clear therefore that, in the supremely wise arrangement of God, sacred Tradition, Sacred Scripture, and the Magisterium of the Church are so connected and associated that one of them cannot stand without the others. Working together, each in its own way, under the action of the one Holy Spirit, they all contribute effectively to the salvation of souls."

During the first three centuries of the Church, persecutions drove all Christians into hiding. During this time all written "New Testament" scriptures (especially the four gospels and the letters of St. Paul) were zealously kept hidden from the authorities. The "Good News" was therefore preached and taught almost exclusively by oral means even well after the end of the persecutions. We know that oral preaching and teaching was a major part of the life of early Christians from, at least, two passages: "There were many other things that Jesus did; if all were written down, the world itself, I suppose, would not hold all the books that would have to be written." (JN 21:25). "Stand firm, then, brothers, and keep the traditions that we taught you, whether by word of mouth or by letter" (2 TH 2:15)

One notable Tradition that was taught and preached by the early church was the stand against abortion (see CCC 2271). Although there is no specific reference to the term "abortion" in the Bible, the Tradition of teaching against abortion in the Catholic Church dates back to apostolic times.

The church continued for centuries without an "official" Bible. All teaching was through preaching and Catholic art (paintings / Icons and later stained glass windows). The scriptures were available (for those who could read) but it was not until the 4th council of Rome in 382 AD when the Bible was formally codified (books identified as inspired by God). Even then the Bible was mainly for the educated as the vast majority of Christians were illiterate.

The Catechism lists the books of the Bible adopted in 382 AD and still found in Catholic Bibles today:

120 It was by the apostolic Tradition that the Church discerned which writings are to be included in the list of the sacred books. This complete list is called the canon of Scripture. It includes books for the Old Testament (45 if we count Jeremiah and Lamentations as one) and 27 for the New.
The Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1 and 2 Samuel, 1 and 2 Kings, 1 and 2 Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah, Tobit, Judith, Esther, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, the Wisdom of Solomon, Sirach (Ecclesiasticus), Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Baruch, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah and Malachi.
The New Testament: the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, the Acts of the Apostles, the Letters of St. Paul to the Romans, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, 1 and 2 Thessalonians, 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, the Letter to the Hebrews, the Letters of James, 1 and 2 Peter, 1, 2, and 3 John, and Jude, and Revelation (the Apocalypse).
The Bible as defined by the council of Rome in 382 AD remained unchanged and was universally accepted by all Christians until the Protestant reformation which began in 1517 AD by Martin Luther. As part of his reformation, Luther deleted seven old testament books: Wisdom, Sirach, Judith, Baruch, Tobit, 1 Maccabees, and 2 Maccabees . Luther's justification for doing this was partly because of an ancient Jewish custom which also rejected these same books because they were not originally written in Hebrew.

Some interesting trivia concerning the bible:
The books of the Bible were assigned Chapter numbers in 1226 AD. by Stephen Langton
Verse numbers were assigned in 1551 AD. by Robert Steven.

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